Distance Learning – Post Graduate Online Education Degrees | Education

According to the Survey of Earned Doctorates, as of 2004 there was a 3.4 percent increase in doctorate degrees awarded in the United States. In June, 2004, a total of 41,155 research doctorate degrees were earned by postgraduate students. The recent increase in doctorate degrees awarded after a decade of decline can be partially attributed to the convenience of distance learning postgraduate online education degrees.Postgraduate degree programs offer students an opportunity to explore a subject to attain the highest levels of proficiency in that area of study. Courses can be based upon a curriculum or independent study and research. A recent study released by both Penn State University Outreach Marketing and Communications and University Continuing Education Association revealed that distance learning is anticipated to grow ten times quicker than on-campus education over the next ten years. Further, about 45 percent of college enrollment are adult students who frequently prefer distance learning opportunities to classes on campus. Sun Chairman Scott McNealy states, “Technology has to play a huge role in education. (It’s) changed commerce…publishing…banking. It’s got to change education big time.”Distance learning postgraduate online education degrees afford busy students the opportunity to earn doctorate degrees at their convenience, without having travel to and attend traditional classes. By the time students intend to pursue distance learning postgraduate online education degrees, they are usually computer literate, self-motivated and able to manage their time properly. These are all essential elements to success in virtual classrooms. The two basic types of postgraduate degrees students may earn are professional doctorates or research doctorates.Professional doctorates. The United States requires terminal professional doctorate degrees to perform in certain fields, such as dentistry, medicine, law, chiropractics, occupational therapy and psychology. Prior to entering these professional doctorate programs, students are required to complete a bachelors degree, preferably in a related field. Professional doctorate degrees, such as J.D. and M.D., usually do not require students to complete a thesis, although some do require an original research paper to be submitted. Doctorate degrees usually take three years to complete after postsecondary education, although distance learning postgraduate online education degrees may be earned more quickly. Because online education courses are often geared for the busy adult learner, students can progress at their own pace.Research doctorates. The research doctorate that is most commonly earned is a Ph.D. The time is takes to complete research doctorate degree programs can vary quite a bit, depending on course pursued. It is common for students to take two to three years to complete coursework and three or more years to conduct pertinent research. The benefit of a Ph.D. is that a holder is qualified to pursue an academic career as an expert in their field. Distance learning research doctorate degrees are conveniently pursued online and can be easily worked around professional schedules.Honorary doctorates. These degrees may be awarded for substantial contributions to a field and are not necessarily academic.Financial Aid. Federal financial aid and loan programs may be applied to distance learning postgraduate online education degrees. Employers may offer tuition reimbursement for coursework. Private loans may also be secured to pay for higher education. Students have several options available that can help them finance their doctorates.Thesis. Some postgraduate doctorate degrees require students to write a thesis. The learner defines their own area of research and takes years to write a detailed paper, which may be made available as pertinent information to other students in the field.Coursework. Distance learning postgraduate online education degree programs offer students ongoing guidance through coursework, email, virtual lectures and online discussions. Students are, however, expected to work independently and use a variety of research resources to complete their course requirements.Online Students. A recent national study entitled Degrees of Opportunity revealed some interesting facts about online students. Eighty-nine percent of those surveyed felt that the benefits derived from higher education are equal to or even greater than the money, time and effort involved. Lyungai Mbilinyi, Ph.D and author of this report, stated, “Eighty-one percent associated higher education with a sense of personal accomplishment and seventy-eight percent believed education would better develop their talents or pursue their interests. Despite the assortment of obstacles many adults face when considering a return to school, the overwhelming majority believe the resulting benefits have made it worthwhile.” Finally, eighty-four percent of enrollments in higher education programs are non-traditional students such as distance learners and adults with jobs. Students who participate in distance learning postgraduate online degree programs are not only seeking better positions, but the increased knowledge and self-esteem that comes with an advanced education.The study “Growing by Degrees: Online Education in the United States, 2005″ found that full distance learning postgraduate online education degree programs were offered by 38 percent of schools. The popularity of postgraduate online degree programs makes it clear they are a viable way to earn higher education and improve career options.

Natural Pet Therapy: How Feng Shui Therapy Can Heal Your Pet Cat, Dog, Bird, Horse or Exotic Animal | Pets

Pets are Feng Shui, according to Feng Shui expert, Yvonne Phillips — author of Feng Shui ABC.”Pets emit a strong, positive form of energy in your home because they are constantly in motion. There is no better Feng Shui for your home,” said Yvonne, “than having an animal run around spreading positive chi.”Pet Feng Shui for Pet Health & Pet EnergyYvonne noted that animals are drawn to the best energy in a room or home. Generate positive energy in your home, and you will enhance your pet’s overall health and happiness.”Your animal will lie down on the area that has the best energy in the home.”They will always lie down on a rug, instead of the hard floor unless they are a hugh animal and have lots of fur to keep them warm.”Pet Feng Shui with Fresh Food, Fresh Water and a Clean BedYvonne stressed that pets like fresh food and water the same as you do! They also like a favorite blanket and favorite toy, so spoil them with what they love.Pet Feng Shui by giving your pet a clean bed!”We have included them in our homes, so we should make the appropriate choices of where they sleep or eat in order to live with us successfully. You like a clean home, they like a clean home as well.”Pet Feng Shui with a Clean HomeYvonne raised another important pet Feng Shui issue: cleanliness. Keep pet plates clean at all times. Be sure not to leave soap residue in your pet’s dish or water bowl. Soap residue can be very harmful for animals. Pets, especially cats, are drawn to well lit areas (like the window sill). Make certain those areas are clean and accessible — that you don’t have anything in the way that can be knocked over.Pet Feng Shui with ColorCats can see several colors. My cat is partial to red blankets.Yvonne indicated that her cat is drawn to both red and green.She suggested that pet Feng Shui plates should be pretty and colorful. Yellow bowls and plates can create an especially happy pet eating area.Negative to plastic! I’ve tossed out all those tiny plastic bowls sold in pet stores.My cat eats from a colorful glass plate and drinks from a glass bowl. He’s much happier — purring throughout the entire meal.Yvonne recommends that you can also use red to energize and feng shui a pet’s eating area.The eating area should also be a protected space — a corner out of the path of humans. Cats (more so than dogs) like privacy while they eat.Pet Feng Shui with Natural Salt Lamps and Natural Salt CandleholdersIt’s difficult to determine if wall colors affect cats and dogs, but pets can definitely sense the energy flow within a room.I use Natural Salt Therapy for Pet Feng Shui in every room of my house.Natural salt lamps and natural salt candleholders release negative ions in abundance – known for enhancing your well-being, energizing the room and gently purifying the air.Natural salt lamps and candleholders cleanse and purify home air from harmful bacteria.They also combat dangerous indoor electro “smog” (computers, televisions, etc.) — thus further safeguarding your pet.And here’s another natural salt benefit. Salt lamps and salt candleholders radiate a stunning, soft pink/red glow.Pets are attracted to natural light and especially to the rich warmth of natural salt lamps and salt candleholders.Yvonne recommends natural salt lamps for her clients and also uses them in her own home.A Feng Shui basket of Salt Crystals will also elevate and harmonize room energy for your pet.Copyright by Dr. Joyce Starr, 2006. All Rights Reserved.**Attn. Editors: You are free to use this article, so long as the Copyright & Resource Box remain intact.================================================================

Laws Of Marriage In Nigeria | laws and issues

Nigeria is as pluralistic in her legal systems as she is in ethnic make ups. There are basically three systems of law in Nigeria I.e the English law, Customary law and Islamic law (also known as Sharia law).Each of these laws has its system of marriage, though they have their differences and similarities. All the three systems of marriage are equal at least in terms of their recognition as marriage that could be legally contracted in Nigeria by anyone who wishes.It is possible for a person to contract two marriages, one under the Customary law and the other under the Islamic law but this is unacceptable as far as English law is concerned.It is important at this point to have a look at each of the marriages with some details.English Law Marriage Contracting marriages in line with the tenets of the English law is governed by the Marriage Act in Nigeria. As far back as 1860 the court had, in Hyde vs. Hyde, defined marriage as ” the voluntary union for life of one man and one woman to the exclusion of all others”. This has been accepted as the meaning of the English law marriage ever since. This type of marriage clearly abhors polygamy.For a marriage to be valid and qualified as an English law marriage in Nigeria, the under listed conditions stipulated by the Marriage Act must be complied with.Conditions for Valid English Law Marriage
Parties to the marriage must have agreed to be husband and wife
The man must have filed a notice in the Marriage Registry within the area where the marriage is to be celebrated, stating his intention to get married
The notice is then entered in the Marriage Notice Book by the registrar
The notice remains open for a minimum of 21 days before the Registrar can issue Marriage Certificate
During the 21 days, anybody who so wishes may enter a caveat as an objection to the planned marriage
At this point, the Registrar will refer the caveat to the High Court which will determine the fate of the caveat one way or the other
Where the caveat is held valid by the High Court, the Registrar will be stopped from issuing the Marriage Certificate until the objection raised in the caveat ceases to exist
Where the High Court invalidates the caveat, the Registrar will proceed to issue the Marriage Certificate. The issuance of the Marriage Certificate should not be earlier than 21 days or later than 3 months from the time of filling a notice of intention to get married by the man.
Other Factors That May Prevent Issuance of the Marriage CertificateApart from any objection that may be contained in a caveat, the Registrar must not issue the Marriage Certificate in any of the following situations:
where none of the parties has been resident in the area where the marriage is to be celebrated 15 days preceding the issuance of the marriage certificate
where the Registrar is satisfied that one of the parties is a minor (I.e below age of 16)
where consent of one of the parties to the marriage is obtained by fraud, dress, undue influence, mistaken identity or a party incapable of giving consent due to mental ill-health
where the parties have blood relationship like cousins
where one of the parties is already married either under the English or Customary law.
Celebration of MarriageThe marriage itself can take place in either of two places I.e the Marriage Registry or a place of worship.In the case of the Marriage Registry, the following conditions apply:
it must take place before the registrar
there must be at least two witnesses, and
it must take place between 10 am to 4pm.
While in the case of a place of worship, the rules are these:
it must be conducted by a recognized minister of the religious organization concerned
the place of worship must be a place licensed under the Marriage Act to conduct marriage
there must be minimum of two witnesses
before conducting the marriage, the minister must be certain that the Marriage Certificate has been obtained by the parties
the marriage must take place between 8am to 6pm
the minister must send a copy of the Marriage Certificate to the Registrar of Marriage within 7 days of the marriage
English law marriage is the most complicated to conclude as will be seen later in the article, when compared to the other two systems of marriage in Nigeria.Customary Law MarriageCustomary law marriage is the easiest marriage to contract in Nigeria. It is a marriage celebrated according to the customs and traditions of any local tribe in Nigeria. In terms of marriage, varied tribes in Nigeria have a lot in common.Essentials of a Customary Law Marriage
Agreement between a man and a woman to be husband and wife
Parental consent especially that of the woman’s side
Payment of the dowry by the man to the woman’s family
Handing over of the woman to the man.
Once the above conditions are fulfilled, a Customary law marriage is validly contracted. This marriage accommodates polygamy so the man can marry as many wives as he wishes. In fact, there is no limit to the number of women that a man can marry under various native customs in Nigeria.Islamic Law MarriageIslamic law marriage refers to a marriage celebrated by two Muslims (I.e a male & a female) in line with the dictates of the Sharia law. Islamic law allows a Muslim male to marry up to 4 wives provided that he will ensure fairness, equity and justice among them.To have a marriage validly celebrated in line with the Islamic law, the following must be fulfilled:
the parties to the marriage must have agreed to marry each other
the consent of the woman’s father or uncle or any male family member is compulsory
the man must give a gift( it could be money or an article) as dowry. The monetary value of whatever is given must not be less than N5000. There is no maximum
celebration of marriage itself must be witnessed by the minimum of two witnesses.
Once the above requirements are met, an Islamic law marriage is deemed to have taken place.What I have planned to do by this article is to present succinct picture of different marriages that Nigerians and Non-Nigerians residing in Nigeria can contract depending on the individual’s preference.The only marriage that is not free for all is the Islamic law marriage which can only take place between a Muslim male and female. However, a Muslim male is allowed to marry a female who belongs to “the People of the Book”. This refers to Jewish or Christian females.Apart from Christians and Jewish faithfuls, a Muslim male cannot marry from any other faith. It might be interesting to hear that the converse is the fate of a Muslim female. She can only marry a fellow Muslim male. This smacks of a subtle strategy to win more converts into the Islamic fold.Having said that, I believe Nigeria is one of the countries where multiplicity of marital choices is well taken care of. Although marriage between same sex or people who are closely related by blood is not allowed and there is no indication that that will happen in no distant future.It is quite funny to note that some people term marriage under the English law as “legal marriage” as if other marriages are not. This is wrong. As a matter of fact, all the three marriages are legal.